1.Informational Text: nonfiction writing written with the intention of informing the reader about a specific topic. Typically found in magazines, newspapers, reference materials, textbooks, and instruction manuals.

2.Informational/Explanatory Writing: The purpose of this type of writing is to increase the understanding of the reader; to educate, in short. To do this, the author must analyze and synthesize information in order to produce new thinking about a subject.

3.Text Evidence: details from the text to support your point of view.

4.Direct Quotation: a report of the exact words of an author or speaker. “To be or not to be,” said Hamlet, “that is the question.”

5.Paraphrase: To put something into your own words that was written or spoken by someone else. You do not use quotes, but you need to cite it to give credit to the person who originally said it.

6.Text Structures: how an author organizes information.

7.Description: Includes details to help you picture or get to know a person, place thing, or an idea. (for instance, such as, is like, characteristics)

8.Sequence: items listed chronologically (first, next, finally, etc.)

9.Problem & Solution: author presents a problem & explains how it is solved. (problem is, dilemma is, if … then, so that)

10.Cause & Effect: author explains why something happened (the cause) and what happened as a result (effect). (so, because, since, therefore, reason why)

11.Compare & Contrast: author provides information about the similarities and differences between two or more people, events, ideas, etc. (similar, alike, also, in the same way)

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